Python #

dwollav2 is available on PyPi with source code available on our GitHub page.

Getting Started #

Installation #

To begin using this SDK, you will first need to download it to your machine. We use PyPi to distribute this package from where you can automagically download it via pip.

shell
$ pip install dwollav2

Initialization #

Before any API requests can be made, you must first determine which environment you will be using, as well as fetch the application key and secret. To fetch your application key and secret, please visit one of the following links:

Finally, you can create an instance of Client with key and secret replaced with the application key and secret that you fetched from one of the aforementioned links, respectively.

python
client = dwollav2.Client(
  key = os.environ['DWOLLA_APP_KEY'],
  secret = os.environ['DWOLLA_APP_SECRET'],
  environment = 'sandbox', # defaults to 'production'
  requests = {'timeout': 0.001}
)
Configure an on_grant callback (optional)

An on_grant callback is useful for storing new tokens when they are granted. The on_grant callback is called with the Token that was just granted by the server.

python
client = dwollav2.Client(
  key = os.environ['DWOLLA_APP_KEY'],
  secret = os.environ['DWOLLA_APP_SECRET'],
  on_grant = lambda t: save(t)
)

It is highly recommended that you encrypt any token data you store.

Tokens

Generating New Access Tokens

Application access tokens are used to authenticate against the API on behalf of an application. Application tokens can be used to access resources in the API that either belong to the application itself (webhooks, events, webhook-subscriptions) or the Dwolla Account that owns the application (accounts, customers, funding-sources, etc.). Application tokens are obtained by using the client_credentials OAuth grant type:

python
application_token = client.Auth.client()

Application access tokens are short-lived: 1 hour. They do not include a refresh_token. When it expires, generate a new one using client.Auth.client().

Initializing Pre-Existing Tokens:

The Dwolla Sandbox Dashboard allows you to generate tokens for your application. A Token can be initialized with the following attributes:

python
client.Token(access_token = '...',
             expires_in = 123)

Making Requests #

Once you've created a Token, currently, you can make low-level HTTP requests.

Low-level Requests #

To make low-level HTTP requests, you can use the get(), post(), and delete() methods. These methods will return a Response object.

GET

python
# GET api.dwolla.com/resource?foo=bar
token.get('resource', foo = 'bar')

# GET requests can also use objects as parameters
# GET api.dwolla.com/resource?foo=bar
token.get('resource', {'foo' = 'bar', 'baz' = 'foo'})

POST

python
# POST api.dwolla.com/resource {"foo":"bar"}
token.post('resource', foo = 'bar')

# POST api.dwolla.com/resource multipart/form-data foo=...
token.post('resource', foo = ('mclovin.jpg', open('mclovin.jpg', 'rb'), 'image/jpeg'))

DELETE

python
# DELETE api.dwolla.com/resource
token.delete('resource')

Setting headers

To set additional headers on a request you can pass a dict of headers as the 3rd argument.

For example:

python
token.post('customers', { 'firstName': 'John', 'lastName': 'Doe', 'email': 'jd@doe.com' },
                        { 'Idempotency-Key': 'a52fcf63-0730-41c3-96e8-7147b5d1fb01' })

Responses #

The following snippets demonstrate successful and errored responses from the Dwolla API.

An errored response is returned when Dwolla's servers respond with a status code that is greater than or equal to 400, whereas a successful response is when Dwolla's servers respond with a 200-level status code.

Success

python
res = token.get('/')

res.status
# => 200

res.headers
# => {'server'=>'cloudflare-nginx', 'date'=>'Mon, 28 Mar 2016 15:30:23 GMT', 'content-type'=>'application/vnd.dwolla.v1.hal+json; charset=UTF-8', 'content-length'=>'150', 'connection'=>'close', 'set-cookie'=>'__cfduid=d9dcd0f586c166d36cbd45b992bdaa11b1459179023; expires=Tue, 28-Mar-17 15:30:23 GMT; path=/; domain=.dwolla.com; HttpOnly', 'x-request-id'=>'69a4e612-5dae-4c52-a6a0-2f921e34a88a', 'cf-ray'=>'28ac1f81875941e3-MSP'}

res.body['_links']['events']['href']
# => 'https://api-sandbox.dwolla.com/events'

Error

If the server returns an error, a dwollav2.Error (or one of its subclasses) will be raised. dwollav2.Errors are similar to Responses.

python
try:
  token.get('/not-found')
except dwollav2.NotFoundError as e:
  e.status
  # => 404

  e.headers
  # => {"server"=>"cloudflare-nginx", "date"=>"Mon, 28 Mar 2016 15:35:32 GMT", "content-type"=>"application/vnd.dwolla.v1.hal+json; profile=\"http://nocarrier.co.uk/profiles/vnd.error/\"; charset=UTF-8", "content-length"=>"69", "connection"=>"close", "set-cookie"=>"__cfduid=da1478bfdf3e56275cd8a6a741866ccce1459179332; expires=Tue, 28-Mar-17 15:35:32 GMT; path=/; domain=.dwolla.com; HttpOnly", "access-control-allow-origin"=>"*", "x-request-id"=>"667fca74-b53d-43db-bddd-50426a011881", "cf-ray"=>"28ac270abca64207-MSP"}

  e.body.code
  # => "NotFound"
except dwollav2.Error:
  # ...
dwollav2.Error subclasses:

See https://developers.dwolla.com/api-reference#errors for more info.

  • dwollav2.AccessDeniedError
  • dwollav2.InvalidCredentialsError
  • dwollav2.NotFoundError
  • dwollav2.BadRequestError
  • dwollav2.InvalidGrantError
  • dwollav2.RequestTimeoutError
  • dwollav2.ExpiredAccessTokenError
  • dwollav2.InvalidRequestError
  • dwollav2.ServerError
  • dwollav2.ForbiddenError
  • dwollav2.InvalidResourceStateError
  • dwollav2.TemporarilyUnavailableError
  • dwollav2.InvalidAccessTokenError
  • dwollav2.InvalidScopeError
  • dwollav2.UnauthorizedClientError
  • dwollav2.InvalidAccountStatusError
  • dwollav2.InvalidScopesError
  • dwollav2.UnsupportedGrantTypeError
  • dwollav2.InvalidApplicationStatusError
  • dwollav2.InvalidVersionError
  • dwollav2.UnsupportedResponseTypeError
  • dwollav2.InvalidClientError
  • dwollav2.MethodNotAllowedError
  • dwollav2.ValidationError
  • dwollav2.TooManyRequestsError
  • dwollav2.ConflictError

Example App #

Take a look at the Sample Application for examples on how to use this SDK to call the Dwolla API. Before you can begin using the app, however, you will need to specify a DWOLLA_APP_KEY and DWOLLA_APP_SECRET environment variable.

Community #

  • If you have any feedback, please reach out to us on our forums or by creating a GitHub issue.
  • If you would like to contribute to this library, bug reports and pull requests are always appreciated!
    • After checking out the repo, run pip install -r requirements.txt to install dependencies. Then, run python setup.py test to run the tests.
    • To install this gem onto your local machine, run pip install -e ..

Docker #

If you prefer to use Docker to run dwolla-v2-python locally, a Dockerfile is included at the root directory. Follow these instructions from Docker's website to create a Docker image from the Dockerfile, and run it.

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